Types of Junipers Trees are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus Cupressaceae cypress family. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are about 50-67 species of juniper, widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa in the Old World, and to the mountains of Central America.
Juniper vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20 to 40 m, to columnar or low-growing shrub with long trailing branches. They are green with needle-like leaves. They can be either monoecious or dioecious. Female seed cones are very distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like scale merger, which fuse together to form & quot; berry & quot; -like structures, 4-27 mm, with 1 to 12 unwinged, hard-shelled seeds. In some of these species & quot; berries & quot; red-brown or orange, but in most they are blue; they are often aromatic and can be used as a spice. Seed maturation time varies between species from 6 to 18 months after pollination. Male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with 6 to 20 scale; most shed their pollen in early spring, but some species pollinate in the fall.
- Juniper berry is a spice used in a wide variety of culinary dishes and is famous for the main flavoring in gin (and responsible on behalf of gin, which is short for the Dutch word for juniper, Guinevere). Juniper berries are also used as main ingredients in the liquor Jenever and sahti-style beer. Juniper berry sauce is often a popular choice for flavoring quail, partridge, veal, rabbit, deer and other meat dishes.
- Juniper. Chinensis (Chinese Juniper) from East Asia, which is widely used in landscaping and horticulture, and as one of the most popular species for use in bonsai. It is also a symbol of longevity, strength, athleticism, and fertility.
Some junipers are susceptible to rust disease Gymnosporangium, and could be a serious problem for people planting apple trees, alternate host disease.
- Juniperus virginiana, & quot; red cedar & quot; which is used widely in cedar drawers. True cedars are those tree species in the genus Cedrus, family Pinaceae.
- In Morocco, tar (gitran) from juniper tree (Juniperus phoenicea) is applied in a dotted pattern on bisque drinking cups. Gitran make water more fragrant and is said to be good for the teeth.
American Indians have used juniper to treat diabetes; The treatment by the Navajo, for example, is under clinical study. Clinical studies have shown that treatment with juniper may inhibit the development of streptozotocin diabetes in mice. Native Americans also used juniper berries as a female contraceptive. The 17th century physician Nicholas Culpeper recommended herbal fruit ripe for conditions such as asthma and sciatica, as well as to speed up the delivery.
Juniper berries are steam distilled to produce essential oils which may vary from colorless to yellow or pale green. Several chemical components that alpha pinene, cadinene, camphene and terpineol.